America's Backyard: The United States and Latin America from by Grace Livingstone

By Grace Livingstone

Utilizing newly-declassified files, Grace Livingstone unearths the U.S. position within the darkest sessions of Latin American historical past together with Pinochet's coup in Chile, the Contra conflict in Nicaragua and the demise squads in El Salvador. She indicates how the U.S. management used the conflict on Terror as a brand new pretext for intervention and the way it attempted to destabilize leftwing governments and chase away the 'pink tide' washing around the Americas.  America's yard additionally has chapters on medications, economic climate and tradition. It explains why U.S. drug coverage has triggered common environmental harm, but did not lessen the provision of cocaine and appears on the U.S. monetary stake in Latin the US and the options of the large organisations. this day Latin american citizens are difficult admire and an finish to the Washington Consensus. Will the White condo hear?

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42 / THE ALLIANCE FOR PROGRESS CIA’s Handbook for Torturers The 1963 manual KUBARK: Counterintelligence Interrogation (KUBARK is the CIA’s codename for itself) deals at length with the psychological aspects of interrogation. Citing numerous academics, the section on ‘non-coercive’ interrogation gives step-by-step instructions on how to disorientate a suspect and weaken his will in order to obtain information. The manual then examines ‘coercive techniques’ which are extracted below. In 1983 the CIA published the Human Resource Exploitation Training Manual, which is strikingly similar to the 1963 manual, and was used in CIA and special forces training in Latin America from 1983 to 1987.

Many junior officers were sent to train in US military academies, establishing a relationship that would endure throughout the Cold War and beyond. At the behest of the United States, all Latin American governments declared war on the Axis powers, although Argentina, which had sympathies with Nazi Germany, left it as late as March 1945 (see below). The war was fought in the name of democracy, but many of the beneficiaries of US military assistance in Latin America were dictatorships, including that of the US’s most important ally: Brazil’s Getúlio Vargas.

Communists could boast prestigious supporters in the region, such as the Chilean poet Pablo Neruda and Mexican artists Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo, but the number of communist party members in Latin America never rose above half a million at a generous estimate. The growth of the Left was part of a much wider movement towards democracy, as the middle class and urban working class demanded greater participation in national affairs. Dictatorships fell across Latin American in 1945– 46; free (or freer) elections were held and opposition parties took power.

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