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Extra info for Accounting of biological sinks and sources under the Kyoto Protocol : a step forwards or backwards for global environmental protection?
7). 3 Changes in sources and sinks through climatic changes As photosynthesis, following a saturation function, is primarily controlled by incident light and increasing cloud cover and aerosol concentrations in the atmosphere must be expected to lead rather to a decrease than an increase in photosynthesis capacity, the global carbon balance will in future be determined primarily by the temperature-driven, exponential increase in respiration (Fig. 7). g. , 1998). In boreal coniferous forests, annual weather variability has already now been found to lead to an oscillation between net carbon emissions and assimilations at the same site.
The various scenarios of accounting for reforestation under the Kyoto Protocol (the commitment period is indicated by the gray bar) and their climate protection implications are explained in the text. The two curves illustrate the range of possible developments as a function of soil quality. (a) Development of carbon stocks in aboveground biomass and the organic layer. (b) Carbon sequestration by the growth of the trees. (c) Generalized trend of the net carbon flux of the ecosystem. Source: WBGU 0,0 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 3 c sink of C 2 1 0 source of C 44 Net carbon flux of the ecosystem (t C ha-1 yr-1) 34 Ecosystem is net source of carbon -1 -20 0 1990 20 40 60 2008–2012 2030 (commitment period) and biodiversity conservation would be turned into their opposites, if in the tropics a brief, very intensive use of an area were to take place between clearcutting and reforestation.
1990). 25 t C ha-1 yr-1, are sinks. 6 wetlands of the northern latitudes. 1 G t C yr-1 (Annex Table 9a). If peat-forming wetlands are drained and thus converted into utilized areas, the mineralization of carbon stocks that then commences generates high carbon flux densities. Bouwman (1990) reports losses of 10 t C ha-1 yr-1 in the initial years. In Great Britain, losses resulting from converting bogs to cultivation are estimated at 5 t C ha-1 yr-1 (Adger, 1994). For Finland, Silvola et al. 5 t C ha-1 yr-1 after drainage.