Accelerators by L. Marton,C. Marton

By L. Marton,C. Marton

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Mrdd. D u n . Vid. Selsk. 14 (1963). 5, 1192 6, 534 9, 1076 33, No. 2. 29 GENERAL CONCEPTS O F ENERGY LOSS Relativistic effect Perturbation treatment Bethe (Born approximation) Bloch (impact parameter) Cindhard (dielectric method) I I I I I lo-* I 10-1 1 Proton energy (MeV) effect 1 I I lo2 lo3 lo4 FIG. 1. Stopping cross section of protons in silicon. The general shape is described by various theories for various energy regions. however, produce different effects in targets. In studying radiation damage, for example, one should focus on the nuclear stopping cross section.

3). The heavy-ion facilities presented in Fig. 7 include (a) the MSU 500(q2/A) MeV superconducting cyclotron injecting into a 800(q2/A) MeV superconducting cyclotron, (b) the 25-MV Oak Ridge folded tandem injected into a 440(q2/A) MeV cyclotron, (c) the French facility GANIL, with coupled 400(q/A2)cyclotrons, (d) the Chalk River 13-MV tandem injected into a 500(q2/A)-MeV cyclotron, and (e) the Oak Ridge 25-MV folded tandem injected into the ORIC cyclotron 90(y2/A). The relative merits of these machines in terms of the total energy per nucleon can be readily determined from the figure.

The curves are labeled according to either their location or their accelerator name: MSU stands for Michigan State University, Ganil is the French project, etc. , 13 MV refers to a 13-MV tandem; 400 refers to the energy constant of a cyclotron; the Berkeley Super Hilac and the Darmstadt accelerators are linear accelerators). The Coulomb barriers of A + A and A + I/ are indicated. The curves labeled V , V , and V , V,, correspond to ion-beam energies for which the ion velocities are equal to the average K-shell and L-shell orbital velocities, respectively, for A + A collisions.

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